The Craxford Family Magazine Red Pages

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Northampton Herald May 8th 1875


The large populous village of Cottingham is situated in one of the loveliest districts of the county of Northampton. The historic castle of Rockingham is within two miles of it, and at the slope of the acclivity on which it is principally built extends the broad and beautiful valley of the Welland, which here divides Northamptonshire from Rutland. But not the most beautiful spots on earth can enjoy an immunity from crime.

On Saturday morning last the inhabitants of Cottingham were shocked and saddened by the news that the child of one of the villagers had been murdered, and what was strangest of all there appeared to be no actual motive for the crime. The victim was a boy who would have been only six years of age in the ensuing June named Thomas Christoper Claypole, the son of a Mrs Craxford, before her marriage. The alleged murderer is a man named Henry Crane, who lived alone in the next house, and who is 55 years of age. He appears to have long bourne a reputation as a "queer" character, many thinking he was not quite compos mentis.

Two years ago he was charged by his wife at the Kettering Police Court with having threatened her life, and he was bound over to keep the peace. She then stated, we are informed, that he was subject to delusions, and that he was continually suspecting somebody of interfering with his food, putting in it something to make him sleep. Since that time they have lived apart, and, as we have just mentioned, he resided alone in a house next to the Craxfords - at the entrance to the village from the Rockingham Road. His house is a wretched hovel, and his bed was nothing but a common straw mattress. Bed clothes he had none; and, altogether, it would seem his existence latterly, at least, has been anything but a happy one. It is said that the quarrels with his wife originally arose from jealousy. They had nine children, and she still lives in the village with the children, several of whom, we understand, are able to earn their own living. During the last five years he has been frequently employed by Mr Peake Reynolds, of the Spread Eagle, who is a farmer as well as an innkeeper. Mr Reynolds speaks in high terms of the man's industry, and of the excellence of his disposition; whilst there has not been the slightest trace of any cruelty in his disposition. As a sower of seed he is reputed to have been an exceedingly good workman. Up to a week before the commission of the crime which has now been laid to his charge, Crane was in Mr Reynold's employ; but the queerness of his manner had made itself more than usually apparent latterly, and the engagement was brought to a termination. During the week intervening, it is alleged, although by no means a man addicted to drink, he had indulged too frequently in intoxicating liquors. Still up to this point he had shown a spirit of friendliness to the Craxfords, and had always treated the children kindly.

The Murder

On Saturday morning last, between nine and ten o'clock, he gave the deceased child three halfpence to go and buy some "suckers". This transaction took place when the lad was playing with his smaller brother just outside the door of his father's house. The "sucker" episode seems to have been completed, and the little fellow was again playing in the garden just beneath the window, when his mother, who was in the house, heard a voice which she recognised as that of Crane's, say: "Come on" and she heard a dragging or shuffling noise as if her lad's feet were being drawn along the ground. An incredible sense of danger induced her to rush to the door, when she saw the younger brother "Jimmy" only. She asked him where "Tommy" was, and Jimmy said: "In there", pointing to Crane's house. The mother opened the door, and there saw the unfortunate child standing in the room near it with his throat cut. She did not wait to see or accost Crane; but, frantic with terror and grief, she brought her child out of the ill-omened house out of the reach of the murderous hand. But help arrived too late; for death ensued in about three minutes after this.

Police Constable Stringer, who lives within fifty yards of the befated spot, happened to be at home, and within a few minutes of the offence Crane was in custody. The constable found him sitting in an arm-chair in his house. On the table was a dagger-knife, with the usual locking apparatus at the back. This was covered with fresh blood. When charged with cutting the throat of the lad, Crane said: "I done it; and I meant to do it" and he made exactly the same reply when, on its being known the child was dead, he was charged with its murder. The nature of the wound as described by Mr Greaves, the surgeon of Great Easton, shows the determined character of the offence. He allowed himself to be taken into custody without the slightest show of resistance. There were a few spots of blood on the front of his boots, but none on his clothes. But Mr Greaves said that such a wound as had been inflicted might be done from behind or from the side of the victim, in which case the blood would not go upon the clothes of the person inflicting the wound. It is stated that the delusions from which Crane suffered two years ago still continue, and that latterly especially he has had the notion that people interfered with his food and endeavoured to introduce something into it to make him sleep.

On Tuesday morning, Mr Superintendent Stoker, of Kettering Division, had some evidence of this as he was bringing the prisoner from the Kettering lock-up. Crane spoke of these attempts to interfere with his food and as they were coming along, he took the Superintendent to a dyke, where he found a quantity of tea and tobacco, which he said he had put away on purpose to show him (Superintendent Stoker) in illustration of the thing of which he complained. In his allotment he dug out with a piece of stick another lot of tobacco, which he said he had put to one side for the same reason. Further it is said he had delusions of another sort. For instance, he would go out leaving but little fire, and when come back and find a glowing fire with the kettle on. Or he would leave a handkerchief on the table and when he came back he would find it hemmed. Those things could not be done without some interposition of some kind he argued. However what the state of the man's mind was when he took away the life of the lad of five years, will be decided by a jury at the next inquiry.

The Inquest

The inquest was held on Tuesday morning at the Spread Eagle, Cottingham, by Wm Marshall Esq, the Coroner assisted by his son the Deputy Coroner, W.H. Marshall, Esq. The following gentlemen were sworn on the jury:- Mr Thos. Aldwinkle (foreman), Mr Wm Aldwinkle, farmer, Mr Wm Spriggs, farmer, Mr Wm Cooke, farmer, Mr Peake, Farmer and innkeeper, Mr Saml Reynolds, farmer and innkeeper, Mr Arthur Buswell, grazier, Mr Edward Spriggs, farmer and grocer, Mr Jesse Ingram, tailor and draper, Mr Wm Simpson, stonemason, Mr Chas Curtis, shoemaker, and Mr John Shaw, publican. Mr John Neville Chamberlain, shoe manufacturer, had been summoned on the jury but he was objected to by the prisoner, who was given the right to challenge the character of the jury. The reason of Crane's objection to Mr Chamberlain was expressed rather incoherently. When asked by the coroner the ground of his objection, prisoner said of Mr Chamberlain: 'He's been letting them have the stuff to put in my food'. Mr Chamberlain said that he now had nothing to do with the shop. Crane, however, still objected to Mr Chamberlain and being pressed for a reason he said: 'He's never any good to me and never waur'.

A juryman: 'Crane has an idea that Mr Chamberlain had served him with the sleeping stuff.' Prisoner repeated his statement which somewhat incoherent, seemed to imply that Mr Chamberlain has served people with the stuff that was to make him sleep, and that had made him sleep. Mr John Shaw was sworn on the jury in the place of Mr Chamberlain.

The deputy coroner having briefly explained the duty which lay before the jury, the body was viewed. On their return into the room, the question was put to them whether they would have the inquiry open. The jury not seeing any objection to its being made an open inquiry, the matter proceeded. The Rev Wm Yates, rector of Cottingham, was present during the inquest. Mr Superintendent Stoker attended on behalf of the police. The prisoner was also present in the room, in the custody of the police, during the whole course of the inquiry. He is a man of about average height, rather fresh complexion, and the top of his head is rather bald. Although his countenance is by no means repulsive, he looks somewhat odd from the fact of his being blind of one eye. He spoke rationally enough, except when touching on the delusions which had been referred to; and he manifested a considerable degree of self-possession and coolness. At the more harrowing details of the crime laid to his charge his face flushed.

Sarah Ann Craxford (his mother) gives evidence

The evidence taken was as follows: Sarah Ann Craxford, who was greatly agitated during the whole of her examination, said 'I am married. My husband, John Craxford, is a labourer, living at Cottingham. I have three children besides the deceased. The deceased, Thomas Christopher Claypole, was my second child, the eldest being a daughter. He was born before my marriage, my maiden name being Claypole. He would have been six years old on the 17th of next June. On Saturday morning last he got up at seven o'clock, and he and I went 'down town' together. We then returned about nine o'clock. He then had some breakfast, and went into the garden where he was playing close under the window. He had not been there many minutes when I heard Henry Crane, a neighbour, talking to him. Crane is a labourer and lives next door. He was in the habit of talking to my children. He was talking to the little boy in a friendly way, he never talked to him in any other way. That was in the garden. I rushed to the door and said: "Tommy, where are you going?". He said: "To fetch some suckers". I did not see Crane give him any money; but I always like when my children go on errands to give them directions myself. I told him he had better go to Mr Chamberlain's or Miss Rayson's because if the child were sent anywhere else he would not know where to go. I never saw whether he had any money, but Crane had been in the habit of sending him for sweets. In about twenty or twenty five minutes the deceased returned and said: "Here, mother, I've got a handful of suckers". His grandmother came in close behind him. Deceased gave me and his grandmother each a sweet and then asked the grandmother: "Why don't you like it?" Then he went out with his other little brother to play in the garden with a younger brother. He had eaten some of his suckers and distributed the rest amongst us. He had no suckers then. They had not been in the garden more than two minutes when I heard a noise as of his feet being drawn along the floor close to the window as if someone had taken hold of him by the shoulders and was drawing him along. I did not see Crane then. Jimmy, the youngest child, was there, but not the deceased. I said: "Jimmy, where's Tommy?". "In there, mother" pointing to Crane's house.

Continued in column 2...

The door of Crane's house was shut. I opened it and there stood my child, bleeding - with his throat cut. I did not see Crane. I just opened the door and pulled my boy out and laid him down. I fetched away the other little one, who was looking at the blood, lest he (Crane) should drag him in too. I then brought my boy into the street. Why I took him there I don't know. When I told my boy to go to Chamberlain's or Miss Rayson's, Crane said "That'll be all right". Whilst deceased was gone for the suckers Crane came to the door of my house. I said something about the likelihood of having rain and he said: "Perhaps we shall". I said: "You see I am doing a bit of sewing; I shall be late with my work today". He said: "Perhaps you will". That was all he said and away he went. He did not come into the house; he only came to the door. He seemed friendly then and always was on friendly terms. I did not see him after that time, nor when I pulled deceased out of Crane's house. I called for assistance and several neighbours came. Mrs Jones was about the first, and the factory men were close at hand. The deceased never spoke, but died in about three minutes. I did not see Crane until he was brought out of the house in the custody of the policeman.The prisoner now present is Henry Crane. (When called upon to identify him she looked long and hard at him, but he returned the look without apparent blanching). Crane lives by himself in the next house. When I heard the drawing or shuffling of feet along the path I heard someone say: "Come on" and I recognised the voice as that of Crane although I did not see him. I knew he was at home at the time. As soon as I opened the door, the deceased was standing so close to it that the blood flushed on it. I can't assign any reason why Crane should have commited such an act as this; he always seemed so kind.'

By a juror: 'I don't believe the child screamed'.
The Coroner told the prisoner that he could cross examine the witness if he chose.
Prisoner rose from his chair, and the witness then looking away, he said roughly: 'Look at me!'.
She said: 'I don't want to see you'.
He continued: 'Haven't you got yourself to thank for this!'.
The Deputy Coroner reminded the prisoner that he should examine the witness upon the evidence that she had given.
Prisoner, again addressing the witness, said: 'What have you done for me?'.
The Deputy Coroner told prisoner that that was not a proper question.
Prisoner then said: 'She said she told the boy to go to Rayson's. She never did. She said "You go to Chamberlains's". And I said: "Yes; that will do". She never mentioned Rayson's'.
The Deputy Coroner said: 'That be a question not helpful. I want to know whether there is anything respecting the death of this boy that she has not spoken truly about'.
Prisoner: 'She said the door was shut, sir. The door was never shut sir, and the boy was going to go out again.'
The Coroner: 'Was it open?'
Prisoner: 'It was open, sir'.
The Deputy Coroner having read over the evidence of the witness regarding the door, the prisoner said: 'The door was not shut, never was shut, I never shut the door at all'.
A juror: 'It might be partly shut'.
Prisoner: 'The door was wide open'.
A juror: 'The door must have been shut or the blood could not have been on the inside of the door'.
Witness: 'I am sure the door was shut at the time I went to look for the deceased. It was shut too. Perhaps it might not be latched; but I remember putting my finger on the latch'.

Evidence of the sweets

John Chamberlain said: 'I am a grocer, living at Cottingham. I knew the deceased well, as he frequently came in the shop for different groceries for his mother. On Saturday morning last, at half past nine o'clock, the deceased came to the shop. My attention was called to him by my apprentice, he having three half-pence and wanting some sweets. Knowing his mother to be in poor circumstances, I questioned him, and asked him whether he really wanted suckers. I asked him whether he was not to have something else; but he said: "No.". I sent him back to inquire of his mother that it was suckers that he was to have. In about twenty minutes he returned, and said he was to have suckers, and his little brother who was with him, was to have some of them. I gave the deceased some sweets, for which he paid the three half-pence, a pennyworth being wrapped up for the deceased, and a half-penny worth for his brother. He did not tell me who had given him the money. The sweets produced are similar to the ones deceased had from my shop, and I have no doubt the paper in which they are wrapped is the same. He has never had three half-pence to spend on sweets before, and that made me question him. It was about half past nine o'clock when he came in the first time. It would be ten o'clock or after when he left the shop the last time.'

Prisoner: 'Has this boy ever been to your house before?'.
Witness: 'I may have served him with sweets before.'
Prisoner: 'I'm sent him for them before, and his mother has sent him to Chamberlain's; and I've told him to go to his grandmother. Well, his grandmother sells sweets. He (deceased) never did go back while (not till) he brought sweets'.
The Deputy Coroner: 'That is immaterial, because witness could not be expected to follow the boy wherever he went.'
Prisoner:'That's right enough, Sir'.

The police and the surgeon take the stand

Police-constable Stringer said: 'I am stationed at Cottingham. On Saturday morning last, May 1st, Dan Miles came to my house. He said: "Mr Stringer, Henry Crane has cut a little child's throat, belonging to Mrs Craxford". I at once went to the place. I saw Mrs Craxford outside in the street, close to her own house; also the deceased lying on his back with his throat cut. Mrs Craxford said: "Oh Mr Stringer!". I said: "Who has done this?". She said: "Henry Crane". I said: "Where is he?" She said: "He has hid himself". I then went to Crane's house. I saw the door was shut. I did not try the door, but forced it open with my foot. As soon as it was open, Crane said: "Halloa". I went inside, and Crane said: "I'm here, Stringer". He was sitting in an arm chair. I went to him and took hold of him. I told him he would be charged with cutting the little boy's throat. He said: "I done it; I meant to do it". I took him outside, where the mother and the deceased were. I then examined the child, and saw it was dead. There was a quantity of blood at the place where the child was lying and also from Crane's house to that place. There was a quantity of blood in Crane's house, on the floor, the wall, the chair, and also on the inner side of the door. On perceiving that the child was dead I charged Crane with murdering it. He said: 'I done it; I meant to do it'. I had not cautioned him then. I then questioned the mother, and asked her what the wound had been done with and she said: "I expect a knife". I said: "Where is it?" The mother said: "I don't know". Crane was present all the time. I took him into custody, and then back again into his house. As soon as I got inside the door I saw this knife (produced) and the cap (also produced) lying on the table. The blade of the knife (a dagger knife) was covered with fresh blood. The cap, I know, belonged to the deceased. When I picked the knife off the table, Crane said: "That's what I done it with". I took him to my house and sent for Doctor Greaves. When Crane came into my house he commenced to make a rambling statement about Mrs Craxford and other people putting something into his food to sleep him, as he said. I then cautioned him. He then said he sent the little boy (meaning the deceased) to Mr Chamberlain's for threeha'p'orth of sweets. I then searched the prisoner, and found the sweets produced in his trousers pocket. Crane remained in my house till the doctor arrived, when I left him in charge of the parish constable and proceeded with the doctor to the house of the deceased. He took possession of the child's clothing, which were covered in blood. The scarf was cut in two, and part of it was in the wound. I then returned and took Crane to Kettering. On our way he made a statement, not to me, but to the lad who was driving. He said: "Bill, you remember Tom Sculthorpe being burnt." He answered: "Yes". Crane said: "I've had this on my mind ever since; I meant to have my revenge on somebody". I took him to the Police Station at Kettering. He was talking about the crops and the weather as we went along.'

Prisoner, on being asked if he wanted to ask the police constable anything, said: 'I don't know as I'm got anything to ask him'.

The cause of death

Mr Thomas Lay Greaves, surgeon, said: 'On Saturday morning last, I was sent for to see the deceased, whose throat, I was told, had been cut by Henry Crane. I came over immediately. Deceased was lying on a board on the floor of the house down stairs. He was dead. I examined the body, and found a deep and extensive wound on the throat. It was between three and four inches in length and nearly an inch deep. There were also two slight wounds on the right lower jaw. The wound would be inflicted by such an instrument as the knife produced. I saw the knife, which was stained with fresh blood. The large vessels on the right side of the neck were all divided; and the windpipe was severed in two just below the larynx. The injuries caused death. A child of the age of the deceased could not have inflicted such a wound himself.'

Crane was asked whether he had any questions to put to Mr Greaves. He said: 'No, not as I know on; I didn't take much notice what he did say'.

Police-constable Stringer, recalled, in answer to Supt Stoker, said when he took Crane to his house he noticed spots of blood on the front part of his shoes. 'It was raining all the way to Kettering, and so I suppose the rain washed it off. I did not notice any traces of blood on the other parts of his clothing.'.

Mr Greaves, recalled, in answer to Supt Stoker, said that a wound of this description might have been inflicted by a person standing to one side or behind the deceased; and in that case there would be no traces of blood on the clothes of that person.
Mr Greaves asked Crane whether he was still wearing the same dress he had on on that morning.
Prisoner: 'Yes; I've never shifted. He (meaning the constable) never told me he see any blood on my shoes.'
The Deputy Coroner: 'He was not bound to do so'.
Prisoner: 'They are just as they waur. There are none on my clothes.' - and he moved his garments and examined them with an apparently cool critical eye.

Continued in column 3...

The Deputy Coroner briefly explained to the jury the points which they had to consider, and represented to them what constituted murder in the eye of the law. The jury, without hesitation, returned a verdict of "Wilful Murder" against the man, Henry Crane. Crane was thereupon committed to the next Northampton Assizes on the Coroner's warrant, the witness being formally bound over to appear. The prisoner was then removed to the Kettering Lock-up again, to await the Magisterial examination on Wednesday.

The Magisterial Examination

On Wednesday morning, at a special sessions, held at Kettering before Sir Geoffrey Palmer, Bart, (in the chair) and Capt Borlace Tibbits, the accused Henry Crane was formally charged with the wilful murder of Thomas Christopher Claypole, the son of Sarah Ann Claypole before her marriage with her present husband, John Craxford, on 1st May. Crane showed the deepest interest in the case, and betrayed much agitation. Mrs Craxford was the first witness called and her evidence was identical with that she gave when before the Coroner the previous day. When she repeated her statement that Crane had always been very kind to her children he sunk into a fainting fit, and would have fallen had it not been for the help of a constable who was standing near. The perspiration stood in beads upon his face. Restoratives were applied and the unfortunate man was carried into the open air which further revived him. Mr J.W. Dryland, surgeon, was sent for to attend him; and a delay of three quarters of an hour was occasioned.

In the meantime a case of robbery from the person was heard.

At the conclusion of this case, Crane was again brought in and was accommodated in a chair. He was asked whether he wished to ask any questions of Mrs Craxford upon the evidence which she had given. Crane said: 'I forget what she said'. Her evidence when then read over to him. Rising with strange deliberation from his chair, with his hands seeking his trouser pockets, he asked her: 'Now what did you say when you asked the child where he waur a-going?'

Witness: 'I said, you go to Chamberlain's for the suckers, or Mrs Rayson's, because my boy was not used to go to any other shops.'
Mr Lamb (the Clerk to the Magistrates): 'You told him to go to Chamberlain's?'
Witness: 'Yes, sir'.
Prisoner: 'She said yesterday she told the child to go to Mrs Rayson's. She never mentioned Mrs Rayson. And I said "That will do", sir'.
Witness: 'I say Mrs Rayson now. I told him to go to Chamberlain's or Mrs Rayson's.'
Prisoner: 'Where did I sit when you fetched the little boy out?'
Witness: 'I did not see you'.
Prisoner: 'No you did not see me because I sat in a chair'.
The chairman advised the prisoner not to indulge in comments now, but to content himself with simply asking questions, as whatever he said would be taken down in writing and might be used in evidence against him. He would have an opportunity of saying what he liked afterwards.
Prisoner: 'I said "You may thank yourself for this".
Capt Tibbits: 'You had better not say anything beyond asking questions. You will have an opportunity of saying what you like afterwards. Is there any other question you would like to ask'.
The prisoner muttered that he did not think he wanted to ask anything more. Police-constable Stringer repeated the evidence he gave before the Coroner the day before; and when he mentioned that Mrs Craxford said prisoner had hidden himself, prisoner said: 'I never hidden myself'.
The constable also stated that the prisoner accused Mrs Craxford of having put something in his food to sleep him.
Prisoner: 'They have been in my house three times of a Sunday, and I've been in my house all night long asleep. There is law for me as well as for them, I should think.'
The constable added that Crane also said if he had got both of them in his house the night before he should have killed them both.
Prisoner: 'Why, I never mentioned such a word, if it was the last I got to speak.'
Constable: 'You said so, Crane'.
Prisoner: 'I never did'.
The Chairman: 'Don't interrupt'.
Prisoner: 'I like the truth as far as it goes'.

Revenge or accident?

The constable repeating prisoner's statement that he would have killed both, prisoner asked:'Both whom? Who do you mean? I could not kill them as went into my house; they are better men than me'. When Stringer repeated the statement as to Sculthorpe's being burnt, and his (prisoner's) determination to be revenged on somebody, prisoner sighed and said: 'I've had it on my mind ever since. The poor man was burnt to a cinder. That was my wife's brother. He has stuff given him to sleep him and his back was burnt like a cinder, and he was burnt to death'. Prisoner now became more agitated, and taking his handkerchief from his neck, he continued: 'They drugged his beer he had. I said that (the deceased) was not the one I wanted. I did not mean that poor little thing; that warn't the one I wanted.'

Police-constable Stringer said prisoner did say something about the deceased not being the one he wanted; but he did not catch the exact words, and therefore he did not mention it.

Stringer's evidence having been read over to him, prisoner said: 'I said that warn't the one I wanted. But I said that there woman was in my house every day when I was out, and I have got a witness here for it - that she was in my house every day, and that she fetched it out and done it. And another (throwing his handkerchief about with his hand) I got at my house at home, that I bought at Kettering. They aren't hemmed and they were turned out of my house and brought back hemmed. I never were well, and never knew what it were to be well since last harvest; I'll take my oath of it if I were to die' (After a pause:) 'The boy ran against the knife. I did not mean doing it. He run again it. I gave him some suckers.'

The Chairman: 'We will hear you presently. Have you any question to ask?'
The prisoner however rambled on about Sculthorpe adding: 'There's law for me as well as there is for anybody else, I hope'.
The Police sergeant stationed by his side asked him to be quiet.
Prisoner, however, said he wouldn't be quiet. It were never hemmed and it were removed out of my house and hemmed and brought in again, and another of the same pattern were brought in hemmed to let me know they'd been in.' He was again enjoined to be quiet but rambled on, amongst other things, saying: 'I never meant him; the Lord Almighty knows it'.

Mr Greaves, who resides at Great Easton, twelve miles from Kettering, being too unwell to attend, it was thought that as his evidence was on the coroner's disposition, the case might be closed without him.

The Chairman having read out the charge to the prisoner and duly cautioned him, prisoner said: 'I've nothing to say, Sir. What I'm got to say I'll say it there. I've got nothing to say. If you'll allow me I'll say it afterwards.' He, however, at once made a rambling statement, which was actually a jumble of what he had said before. He said he had bought both handkerchiefs at shops in Kettering, one of them near the Flower de Lace. People, he declared, had put stuff into his food to sleep him, and he had sat all night long alseep in his chair. It was about time to make a start. He had never gone to bed, and had not had a chance of getting to bed; he had sat until his fire had gone out, and he had been starved to death. When asked whether he had any witnesses, he said (flourishing his neckerchief): 'These are my witnesses' - and the story of the neckerchiefs and the sleeping stuff was repeated over again. He was greatly excited; and there was a wildness in his look which was not so distinctly manifest when he was present at the inquest.

He was formally committed for trial at the next Assizes, and was removed the same afternoon in the custody of inspector Norman to Northampton County Gaol.

Postscript: Report from the Summer Assizes


From: NORTHAMPTON MERCURY: July 17th 1875

His Lordship explained to the Grand Jury, notwithstanding Henry Crane, the man charged with the wilful murder of Thomas Christopher Claypole, at Cottingham on the 1st of May 1875, had been removed to a Criminal Lunatic Asylum, at Broadmoor by order of the Secretary of State, on the 21st of May 1875, it was necessary to send up a bill. The Grand Jury endorsed the bill.

Transcribed and formatted by Alan D Craxford
Added - May 1st 2007
Revised: September 23rd 2011


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